Unique Gut Bacteria And Inflammation Pattern Found In Type 1 Diabetes

A distinct inflammation pattern, and a unique microbe array has been found in the digestive tract of individuals with type 1 diabetes, according to research published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

The inflammation pattern seems specific to type 1 diabetes since it is absent in non-diabetics and those with other autoimmune issues, such as celiac disease. Type 1 diabetes is considered an autoimmune condition since it typically occurs when the body’s immune system attacks the pancreas, rendering it incapable of producing insulin.

“Some researchers have theorized that the gut may contribute to the development of Type 1 diabetes, so it is important to understand how the disease affects the digestive system and microbiome,” said senior study author Lorenzo Piemonti, M.D., Diabetes Research Institute at San Raffaele Hospital, Milan Italy.

The microbiome, or gut bacteria of 54 people were studied after each had an endoscopy, or biopsy of their duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). Some participants underwent the procedure for diagnostic purposes, and others subjected themselves voluntarily, to be part of the study. This method allowed investigators to directly analyze intestinal tissue and bacteria, and to examine high-resolution pictures provided by the endoscopies.

When compared to the non-diabetic and celiac participants, those with type 1 diabetes had significantly more inflammation indicators for the gut’s mucous membrane linked to ten identified genes. Type 1 subjects also carried a distinct gut bacterium combination that differed from the healthy, and celiac groups.

Whether the inflammation signature is triggered by, or results from the body’s attack on the pancreas is unknown. “By exploring this, we may be able to find new ways to treat the disease by targeting the unique gastrointestinal characteristics of individuals with type 1 diabetes,” said Piemonti.

Source: Science Daily

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