GAD65 antibodies have been found to be directly related to type 1.5 diabetes, which occurs when islet beta cell cells are mistakenly destroyed within the pancreas. They are also present in patients with type 1 diabetes. Patients with type 1.5 diabetes have either a presence of GAD65 antibodies, islet cell antibodies, or both. The deficiency of GAD65 has been directly connected with many autoimmune neurological disorders. Having GAD65 antibodies is enough, in itself, to warrant a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes.
The official name for GAD65 is glutamate decarboxylase, but it is also known as glutamic acid decarboxylase. It is an enzyme that changes form as a result of a chemical change. In humans, GAD breaks down into similar forms of the same enzyme. These two forms are GAD 67 and GAD 65.
Both GAD 67 and GAD65 are targeted by certain antibodies within humans. As time progresses, this action creates the presence of type 1 diabetes. There has been very promising results of injecting GAD65 into these individuals who have type 1. Results have shown that some individuals have been able to maintain some level of insulin production for as long as 2 and 1/2 years.
The way to detect GAD65 antibodies is through an intravenous glucose tolerance test, or IVGTT. This is used to measure the amount of insulin secretion at specific intervals. Since it is often hard to distinguish between type 1 and type 1.5 diabetes, this test can be very helpful in making that determination.
The recommendation for this illness is similar to other types of diabetes. Diet, exercise and maintaining a healthy weight are all recommended for dealing with this condition.